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The definition of the term ``hacker'' has changed over the years. A hacker was once thought of as any individual who enjoyed getting the most out of the the system he was using. A hacker would use a system extensively and study the system until he became proficient in all its nuances. This individual was respected as a source of information for local computer users; someone referred to as a ``guru'' or ``wizard.'' Now, however, the term hacker is used to refer to people who either break into systems for which they have no authorization or intentionally overstep their bounds on systems for which they do have legitimate access.

Methods used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to systems include:

The most common techniques used to gain unauthorized system access involve password cracking and the exploitation of known security weaknesses. Password cracking is a technique used to surreptitiously gain system access by using another users account. Users often select weak password. The two major sources of weakness in passwords are easily guessed passwords based on knowledge of the user (e.g. wife's maiden name) and passwords that are susceptible to dictionary attacks (i.e. brute-force guessing of passwords using a dictionary as the source of guesses).

Another method used to gain unauthorized system access is the exploitation of known security weaknesses. Two type of security weaknesses exist: configuration errors, and security bugs. There continues to be an increasing concern over configuration errors. Configuration errors occur when a the system is set up in such a way that unwanted exposure is allowed. Then, according to the configuration, the system is at risk from even legitimate actions. An example of this would be that if a system ``exports'' a file system to the world (makes the contents of a file system available to all other systems on the network) , then any other machine can have full access to that file system (one major vendor ships systems with this configuration). Security bugs occur when unexpected actions are allowed on the system due to a loophole in some application program. An example would be sending a very long string of keystrokes to a screen locking program, thus causing the program to crash and leaving the system inaccessible.

A third method of gaining unauthorized access is network spoofing. In network spoofing a system presents itself to the network as though it were a different system (system A impersonates system B by sending B's address instead of its own). The reason for doing this is that systems tend to operate within a group of other ``trusted'' systems. Trust is imparted in a one-to-one fashion; system A trusts system B (this does not imply that system B trusts system A). Implied with this trust, is that the system administrator of the trusted system is performing his job properly and maintaining an appropriate level of security for his system. Network spoofing occurs in the following manner: if system A trusts system B and system C spoofs (impersonates) system B, then system C can gain otherwise denied access to system A.

``Social engineering'' is the final method of gaining unauthorized system access. People have been known to call a system operator, pretending to be some authority figure, and demand that a password be changed to allow them access. One could also say that using personal data to guess a user's password is social engineering.

Next: Phone Phreaks Up: Human Threats Previous: Insider Attacks
Thu Mar 10 15:32:44 EST 1994