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Combinatorial Testing

Physical unclonable function (PUF) vulnerabilities

Combination frequency differencing (CFD) can be used to analyze the susceptibility of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) to machine learning attacks. Preliminary results suggest that the method may be useful for identifying bit combinations that have a disproportionately strong influence on PUF response bit values.

Kuhn, D. R., Raunak, M. S., Prado, C., Patil, V. C., & Kacker, R. N. (2022, April). "Combination Frequency Differencing for Identifying Design Weaknesses in Physical Unclonable Functions". In 2022 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW) (pp. 110-117). 

Most vulnerable PUF:

Weak PUF

Least vulnerable PUF:

Strong PUF


Created May 24, 2016, Updated September 06, 2023