Abstract: We study the concrete security of high-performance implementations of half-gates garbling, which all rely on (hardware-accelerated) AES. We find that current instantiations using k-bit wire labels can be completely broken, in the sense that the circuit evaluator learns all the inputs of the circuit garbler, in time O(2^k/C), where C is the total number of gates, possibly across multiple independent executions. The attack can be applied to existing circuit-garbling libraries using k = 80 and would require 267 machine-months and cost about USD 3500. With this as our motivation, we seek a way to instantiate the hash function in the half-gates scheme to achieve better concrete security. We present a construction based on AES that achieves optimal security in the single-instance setting (when only a single circuit is garbled). We also show how to modify the half-gates scheme so that its concrete security does not degrade in the multi-instance setting.
Security and Privacy: cryptography