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A cryptographic hash function, such as SHA-1.
NIST SP 800-135 Rev. 1 under HASH
a function which maps strings of bits to fixed-length strings of bits, satisfying the following two properties: it is computationally infeasible to find for a given output an input which maps to this output; and it is computationally infeasible to find for a given input a second input which maps to the same output.
NIST SP 800-15