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  The process of using a mathematical algorithm against data to produce a numeric value that is representative of that data.
CNSSI 4009-2015 from NIST SP 800-72
NIST SP 800-101 Rev. 1 under Hashing
NIST SP 800-72 under Hashing

  A method of calculating a relatively unique output (called a hash digest) for an input of nearly any size (a file, text, image, etc.) by applying a cryptographic hash function to the input data.
NISTIR 8202 under Hashing