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On July 17, 1995, NIST established the Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP) that validates cryptographic modules to Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-1, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules, and other FIPS cryptography based standards. FIPS 140-2, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules, was released on May 25, 2001 and supersedes FIPS 140-1. The CMVP is a joint effort between NIST and the Canadian Centre for Cyber Security (CCCS), a branch of the Communications Security Establishment (CSE).
Modules validated as conforming to FIPS 140-2 are accepted by the Federal Agencies of both countries for the protection of sensitive information.
Vendors of cryptographic modules use independent, accredited Cryptographic and Security Testing (CST) laboratories to test their modules. The CST laboratories use the Derived Test Requirements (DTR), Implementation Guidance (IG) and applicable CMVP programmatic guidance to test cryptographic modules against the applicable standards. NIST's Computer Security Division (CSD) and CCCS jointly serve as the Validation Authorities for the program, validating the test results and issuing certificates.
FIPS 140-1 became a mandatory standard for the protection of sensitive data when the Secretary of Commerce signed the standard on January 11, 1994. FIPS 140-2 supersedes FIPS 140-1 and the standard was signed on May 25, 2001. The applicability statement from FIPS 140-2 (page iv):
7. Applicability. This standard is applicable to all Federal agencies that use cryptographic-based security systems to protect sensitive information in computer and telecommunication systems (including voice systems) as defined in Section 5131 of the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, Public Law 104-106. This standard shall be used in designing and implementing cryptographic modules that Federal departments and agencies operate or are operated for them under contract. Cryptographic modules that have been approved for classified use may be used in lieu of modules that have been validated against this standard. The adoption and use of this standard is available to private and commercial organizations.
FIPS 140-2 precludes the use of unvalidated cryptography for the cryptographic protection of sensitive or valuable data within Federal systems. Unvalidated cryptography is viewed by NIST as providing no protection to the information or data—in effect the data would be considered unprotected plaintext. If the agency specifies that the information or data be cryptographically protected, then FIPS 140-2 is applicable. In essence, if cryptography is required, then it must be validated.
With the passage of the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002, there is no longer a statutory provision to allow for agencies to waive mandatory FIPS. The waiver provision had been included in the Computer Security Act of 1987; however, FISMA supersedes that Act. Therefore, the references to the "waiver process" contained in many of the FIPS listed below are no longer operative.
As background, below is a list of facts found in FIPS 140-2 and other supporting NIST documents: