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Approved hash algorithms for generating a condensed representation of a message (message digest) are specified in two Federal Information Processing Standards: FIPS 180-4, Secure Hash Standard and FIPS 202, SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions.
FIPS 180-4 specifies seven hash algorithms:
Currently only the four fixed-length SHA-3 algorithms are approved hash algorithms, providing alternatives to the SHA-2 family of hash functions. The XOFs can be specialized to hash functions, subject to additional security considerations. Guideline for using the XOFs will be provided in the future.
In addition to four fixed-length hash functions, FIPS 202 also defines two eXtendable Output Functions, SHAKE128 and SHAKE256. Unlike the fixed-length hash functions, these SHAKE functions support variable-length outputs, and are named for their expected security level.
FIPS 202 also supports a flexible scheme for domain separation between different functions derived from KECCAK, ensuring that different named functions will produce unrelated outputs. NIST extends this flexibility further to allow users to customize their use of the functions by defining a customizable version of SHAKE, called cSHAKE.
NIST SP 800-106, Randomized Hashing for Digital Signatures provides recommendation for randomizing the hash input messages prior to signature generation to strengthen the security of the digital signatures being generated.
NIST SP 800-107 Revision 1, Recommendation for Using Approved Hash Algorithms provides security guidelines for achieving the required or desired security strengths when using cryptographic applications that employ the approved hash functions. These include applications such as digital signatures, Keyed-hash Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) and Hash-based Key Derivation Functions (Hash-based KDFs).
Testing requirements and validation lists are available from the Cryptographic Algorithm Validation Program (CAVP).